BOY SCOUT
ADVANCEMENT
REQUIREMENT CHANGES

Effective January 1, 2006


When there is a conflict between two published lists of requirements, such as the Requirements Book and a Merit Badge Pamphlet, the Requirements Book should be considered to be the controlling document, until a newer edition of the Requirements Book is issued, EXCEPT when the pamphlet has a later issue date.

BSA has been updating ALL of the merit badge books over the past few years. As of January 1, 2006, only 10 of the pamphlets have editions issued before January 1, 1999 and the requirements for only 12 merit badges have remained completely unchanged during that period. As new pamphlets are issued, when they contain new requirements, Scouts will have the option of starting with the new requirements as soon as the pamphlets are issued, or they may start work using the old requirements until the next edition of Boy Scout Requirements(BSA Publication No. 33215) is issued.

BSA will NOT hold the publications up until January each year. Instead, they will issue them as they are completed (and old stocks are exhausted, probably). Then in January, the Requirements Book will include all revisions to date.

Those Scouts working on any badges using the old requirements and who started before the new books were issued may complete the badge using the old requirements  Those starting work on the badge after the new books are issued, may use either the old or new requirements, at their option.  For RANK requirement changes, Scouts must normally meet the CURRENT requirements when they are ready for their Board of Review, unless special rules apply (as is the case for First Class below).

The following Merit Badges have totally new or modified requirements listed in the 2006 edition of Boy Scout Requirements (33215B).  Note that many of these actually appeared in Merit Badge Pamphlets issued during 2005 after the release of the 2005 edition of Boy Scout Requirements (33215A).

REVISED RANK REQUIREMENTS

First Class

REVISED MERIT BADGE REQUIREMENTS

American Cultures
American Heritage
American Labor
Astronomy
Bird Study
Camping
Chemistry
Citizenship in the World
Computers
Crime Prevention
Disability Awareness
Energy
Environmental Science
Forestry
Genealogy
Geology
Photography
Pioneering
Plant Science
Public Health
Pulp and Paper
Reptile and Amphibian Study
Scholarship
Shotgun Shooting
Skating
Truck Transportation
Veterinary Medicine
Whitewater

NEW MERIT BADGE

Composite Materials

In some of the revisions below, where only a few items changed,
the wording changes are shown
with added wording in bold green underlined text ,
and deleted wording in red strikeout text .


First Class

The following new requirement 11 was added, and old requirements 11 and 12 were renumbered to 12 and 13.

  1. Tell someone who is eligible to join Boy Scouts, or an inactive Boy Scout, about your troop's activities.  Invite him to a troop outing, activity, service project or meeting.  Tell him how to join, or encourage the inactive Boy Scout to become active.

The new requirement was accompanied by this footnote:

Effective January , 2006, Scouts already working on their First Class rank prior to this date will have until June 30, 2006, to complete the rank without fulfilling requirement 11.

Questions were raised as to when does a Scout begin "working on their First Class rank"? We requested a clarification from the National BSA Office to resolve the issue.  Here is their response:

A boy who is working on Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class (under the First Class Within a Year) is working on First Class.  He would have until the June deadline to complete First Class or would have to complete under the new requirement.


American Cultures

Scouts must use THREE groups (instead of TWO) for requirements 1, 2, & 3.  Minor changes were made to requirements 1b, 1d, 2, 3, and 4.  In requirement 5, option (b) was deleted, and minor changes were made to former option (a).  The requirements now read as follows (with the changes highlighted):

Choose THREE TWO groups that have different racial, cultural, national, or ethnic backgrounds, one of which comes from your own background . Use these groups to meet requirements 1, 2, and 3. Also complete requirement 4 and either requirement 5a or 5b.

  1. Do TWO of the following, choosing a different group for each:
    1. Go to a festival, celebration, or other event identified with one of the groups. Report on what you see and learn.
    2. Go to a place of worship, church, clubhouse, school, or other institution identified with one of the groups. Report on what you see and learn.
    3. Talk with a person from one of the groups about the heritage and traditions of the group. Report on what you learn.
    4. Learn a song, or dance , or poem, or story which is traditional to one group, and teach it to a group of your friends.
    5. Go to a library or museum to see a program or exhibit featuring one group's traditions. Report on what you see and learn.
  2. Imagine that one of the groups had always lived alone in a city or country to which no other groups ever came. Tell what you think the city or country might be like today. Now tell what you think it might be like if both the three groups you chose lived there at the same time.
  3. Tell about some differences between the religions and social customs of the three two groups. Tell about some ideas, or ways of doing things that are similar in the three groups , which are almost the same in both groups .
  4. Tell about a contribution made to our country by three different people each from a different racial, ethnic, or religious background such as black American, white American, native American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, or any other background of your choosing. Their backgrounds may be religious, as well, such as Jews, Muslims, Hindus, etc .
  5. Do ONE of the following:
    a.
    Give a talk to your Scout unit troop or school class at school on how people from different groups have gotten along together. Lead a discussion on what can be done to help various groups understand one another better.
    b. Tell about some achievements of the United Nations accomplished by people of many cultures and beliefs working in one organization. Tell how the U.N. has dealt with some problems caused by conflicts between different groups.

American Heritage

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Read the Declaration of Independence.  Pay close attention to the section that begins with "We hold these truths to be self-evident" and ends with "to provide new Guards for future security." Rewrite that section in your own words, making it as easy to understand as possible.  Then share your writing with your merit badge counselor and discuss the importance of the Declaration of Independence.
  2. Do TWO of the following:
    1. Select two individuals from American history, one a political leader (a president, senator, etc.) and the other a private citizen (a writer, religious leader, etc.). Find out about each person's accomplishments and compare the contributions each has made to America's heritage.
    2. With your counselor's approval, choose an organization that has promoted some type of positive change in American society. Find out why the organization believed this change was necessary and how it helped to accomplish the change. Discuss how this organization is related to events or situations from America's past.
    3. With your counselor's approval, interview two veterans of the U.S. military. Find out what their experiences were like. Ask the veterans what they believe they accomplished.
    4. With your counselor's approval, interview three people in your community of different ages and occupations. Ask these people what America means to them, what they think is special about this country, and what American traditions they feel are important to preserve.
  3. Do the following:
    1. Select a topic that is currently in the news. Describe to your counselor what is happening. Explain how today's events are related to or affected by the events and values of America's past.
    2. For each of the following, describe its adoption, tell about any changes since its adoption, and explain how each one continues to influence Americans today: the flag, the Pledge of Allegiance, the seal, the motto, and the national anthem.
    3. Research your family's history. Find out how various events and situations in American history affected your family. Share what you find with your counselor. Tell why your family came to America.
  4. Do TWO of the following:
    1. Explain what is meant by the National Register of Historic Places. Describe how a property becomes eligible for listing. Make a map of your local area, marking the points of historical interest. Tell about any National Register properties in your area. Share the map with your counselor, and describe the historical points you have indicated.
    2. Research an event of historical importance that took place in or near your area. If possible, visit the place. Tell your counselor about the event and how it affected local history. Describe how the area looked then and what it now looks like.
    3. Find out when, why, and how your town or neighborhood started, and what ethnic, national, or racial groups played a part. Find out how the area has changed over the past 50 years and try to explain why.
    4. Take an active part in a program about an event or person in American history. Report to your counselor about the program, the part you took, and the subject.
    5. Visit a historic trail or walk in your area. After your visit, share with your counselor what you have learned. Discuss the importance of this location and explain why you think it might qualify for National Register listing.
  5. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Watch two motion pictures (with the approval and permission of your counselor and parent) that are set in some period of American history. Describe to your counselor how accurate each film is with regard to the historical events depicted and also with regard to the way the characters are portrayed.
    2. Read a biography (with your counselor's approval) of someone who has made a contribution to America's heritage. Tell some things you admire about this individual and some things you do not admire. Explain why you think this person has made a positive or a negative contribution to America's heritage.
    3. Listen to recordings of popular songs from various periods of American history. Share five of these songs with your counselor, and describe how each song reflects the way people felt about the period in which it was popular. If a recording is not available, have a copy of the lyrics available.
  6. Discuss with your counselor the career opportunities in American heritage. Pick one that interests you and explain how to prepare for this career. Discuss what education and training are required for this career.

American Labor

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Using resources available to you, learn about working people and work-related concerns. List and briefly describe or give examples of at least EIGHT concerns of American workers. These may include, but are not limited to, working conditions, workplace safety, hours, wages, seniority, job security, equal opportunity employment and discrimination, guest workers, automation and technologies that replace workers, unemployment, layoffs, outsourcing, and employee benefits such as health care, child care, profit sharing, and retirement benefits.
  2. With your counselor's and parent's approval and permission, visit the office or attend a meeting of a local union, a central labor council, or an employee organization, or contact one of these organizations via the Internet. Then do EACH of the following:
    1. Find out what the organization does.
    2. Share the list of issues and concerns you made for requirement 1. Ask the people you communicate with which issues are of greatest interest or concern to them and why.
    3. Draw a diagram showing how the organization is structured, from the local to the national level, if applicable.
  3. Explain to your counselor what labor unions are, what they do, and what services they provide to members. In your discussion, show that you understand the concepts of labor, management, collective bargaining, negotiation, union shops, open (nonunion) shops, grievance procedures, mediation, arbitration, work stoppages, strikes, and lockouts.
  4. Explain what is meant by the adversarial model of labor-management relations, compared with a cooperative-bargaining style.
  5. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Develop a time line of significant events in the history of the American labor movement from the 1770s to the present.
    2. Prepare an exhibit, a scrapbook, or a computer presentation, such as a slide show, illustrating three major achievements of the American labor movement and how those achievements affect American workers.
    3. With your counselor's and parent's approval and permission, watch a movie that addresses organized labor in the United States. Afterward, discuss the movie with your counselor and explain what you learned.
    4. Read a biography (with your counselor's approval) of someone who has made a contribution to the American labor movement. Explain what contribution this person has made to the American labor movement.
  6. Explain the term globalization. Discuss with your counselor some effects of globalization on the workforce in the United States. Explain how this global workforce fits into the economic system of this country.
  7. Choose a labor issue of widespread interest to American workers-an issue in the news currently or known to you from your work on this merit badge. Before your counselor, or in writing, argue both sides of the issue, first taking management's side, then presenting labor's or the employee's point of view. In your presentation, summarize the basic rights and responsibilities of employers and employees, including union members and nonunion members.
  8. Discuss with your counselor the different goals that may motivate the owners of a business, its stockholders, its customers, its employees, the employees' representatives, the community, and public officials. Explain why agreements and compromises are made and how they affect each group in achieving its goals.
  9. Learn about opportunities in the field of labor relations. Choose one career in which you are interested and discuss with your counselor the major responsibilities of that position and the qualifications, education, and training such a position requires.

Astronomy

A new version of the merit badge pamphlet for this merit badge, with substantially new requirements, was issued during 2004 after the 2004 edition of BOY SCOUT REQUIREMENTS was issued.  The 2005 edition of Boy Scout Requirements omitted requirements 9 & 10 below.  That was an editorial error in transferring the information from the pamphlet, and was corrected in the 2006 edition. No other changes were made in 2006

  1. With your counselor's approval and guidance, do ONE of the following:
    1. Visit a planetarium or astronomical observatory. Submit a written report, a scrapbook, or a video presentation afterward to your counselor that includes the following information:
      1. Activities occurring there
      2. Exhibits and displays you saw
      3. Telescopes and instruments being used
      4. Celestial objects you observed.
    2. Plan and participate in a three-hour observation session that includes using binoculars or a telescope. List the celestial objects you want to observe, and find each on a star chart or in a guidebook. Prepare an observing log or notebook. Show your plan, charts, and log or notebook to your counselor before making your observations. Review your log or notebook with your counselor afterward.
    3. Plan and host a star party for your Scout troop or other group such as your class at school. Use binoculars or a telescope to show and explain celestial objects to the group.
    4. Help an astronomy club in your community hold a star party that is open to the public.
    5. Personally take a series of photographs or digital images of the movement of the Moon, a planet, an asteroid or meteoroid, or a comet. In your visual display, label each image and include the date and time it was taken. Show all positions on a star chart or map. Show your display at school or at a troop meeting. Explain the changes you observed.
  2. List at least three different career opportunities in astronomy. Pick the one you in which are most interested and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss with your counselor what courses might be useful for such a career.

Bird Study

The wording of items 4c and 6 were revised slightly..  Requirements 4c and 6 now read as follows:

  1. Demonstrate that you know how to use a bird field guide. Show your counselor that you are able to understand a range map by locating in the book and pointing out the wintering range, the breeding range, and/or the year-round range of one species of each of the following types of birds:
    1. Seabird
    2. Plover
    3. Falcon or hawk
    4. Warbler or vireo
    5. Heron or egret
    6. Sparrow
    7. Nonnative bird (introduced to North America from a foreign country since 1800)
  2. Explain the function of a bird's song. Be able to identify five of the 20 species in your field notebook by song or call alone. For each of these five species enter a description of the song or call, and note the behavior of the bird making the sound. Note why you think the bird was making the call or song that you heard.

Camping

Changes were made to virtually all of the requirements.  The changes that were made are shown below:

  1. Show that you know first aid for and how to prevent injuries or illnesses that could occur while camping, including hypothermia,  heatstroke, heat exhaustion, frostbite, heat reactions, dehydration, altitude sickness, insect stings, sunburn, tick bites, snakebite, and blisters, and hyperventilation .
  2. Learn the Leave No Trace principles and the Outdoor Code and explain what they mean. Write a personal and group plan for implementing these principles on your next outing..
  3. Make a written plan for an overnight trek and explain show how to get to your camping spot using a topographical map and compass and a GPS receiver. If no GPS receiver unit is available, explain how to use one to get to your camping spot .
  4. Make a chart showing how a typical patrol is organized for an overnight campout. List assignments for each member.
    Do the following:
    1. Make a duty roster showing how your patrol is organized for an actual overnight campout. List assignments for each member.
    2. Help a Scout patrol or a Webelos Scout unit in your area prepare for an actual campout, including creating the duty roster, menu planning, equipment needs, general planning, and setting up camp.
  5. Do the following:
    1. Prepare a list of clothing you would need for overnight campouts in both warm weather and in cold weather. Explain the term "layering."
    2. Discuss footwear for different kinds of weather and how the right footwear is important for protecting your feet.
    3. Explain the proper care and storage of camping equipment (clothing, footwear, bedding).
    4. Explain the term "layering".
      List the outdoor essentials necessary for any campout, and explain why each item is needed.
    5. Present yourself to your Scoutmaster with your pack for inspection. Be correctly clothed and equipped for an overnight campout.
  6. Do the following:
    1. Describe the features of four types of tents, when and where they could be used, and how to care for tents. Working with another Scout, pitch a tent.
    2. Discuss the reasons and methods for water treatment. Discuss camp sanitation.
      Discuss the importance of camp sanitation and tell why water treatment is essential. Then demonstrate two ways to treat water.
    3. Describe the factors to be considered in deciding where to pitch your tent.
    4. (c) Tell the difference between "internal" internal- and "external" external- frame packs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.
    5. Discuss the types of sleeping bags and what kind would be suitable for different conditions. Explain the proper care of your sleeping bag and how to keep it dry . Make a comfortable ground bed.
  7. Prepare for an overnight campout with your patrol by doing the following:
    1. Make a checklist of personal and patrol gear that will be needed.
    2. (b ) Prepare a camp menu that is right for backpacking.. Give recipes and make a food list for your patrol. Plan two breakfasts, three lunches, and two suppers. Discuss how to protect your food against bad weather, animals, and contamination.
      (c) Pack your own gear and your share of the patrol equipment and food for proper carrying. Show that your pack is right for quickly getting what is needed first, and that it has been assembled property for comfort, weight, balance, size, and neatness.
  8. Do the following:
    1. Explain the safety procedures for when using a :
      1. Using a propane Propane or butane/propane stove
      2. Using a liquid Liquid fuel stove
      3. Proper storage of extra fuel
    2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different types of lightweight cooking stoves.
    3. Cook for your patrol a trail meal requiring the use of a lightweight stove.
      Prepare a camp menu. Explain how the menu would differ from a menu for a backpacking or float trip. Give recipes and make a food list for your patrol. Plan two breakfasts, three lunches, and two suppers. Discuss how to protect your food against bad weather, animals, and contamination.
    4. Cook at least one breakfast, one lunch, and one dinner for your patrol from the meals you have planned for requirement 8c. At least one of those meals must be a trail meal requiring the use of a lightweight stove.
  9. Show experience in camping by doing the following:
    1. Camp a total of at least 20 days and 20 nights. Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched. You may use a week of long-term camp toward this requirement. Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched (long-term camp excluded). If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent.
    2. On any of these camping experiences, you must do TWO of the following, only with proper preparation and under qualified supervision:
      1. Hike up a mountain, gaining at least 2,000 1,000 vertical feet.
      2. Backpack, snowshoe, or cross-country ski for at least 4 miles.
      3. Take a bike trip of at least 15 miles or at least four hours.
      4. Plan and carry out a float Take a nonmotorized trip on the water of at least four hours or 5 miles.
      5. Plan and carry out an overnight snow camping experience.
      6. (5) Rappel down a rappel route of 30 feet or more.
    3. On one of your campouts, perform Perform a conservation project approved in advance by the private landowner or public land management managing agency.
  10. Discuss how the things you did to earn this badge have taught you about personal health and safety, survival, public health, conservation, and good citizenship. In your discussion, tell how Scout spirit and the Scout Oath and Law apply to camping and outdoor ethics.

Chemistry

Requirement 6e became requirement 7d, and a new requirement 7c was added.  The new requirements 7c and 7d read as follows:

    1. Visit an industrial plant that makes chemical products or uses chemical processes and describe the processes used. What, if any, pollutants are produced and how they are handled.
    2. 6. e. Visit a county farm agency or similar governmental agency and learn how chemistry is used to meet the needs of agriculture ,in your county.

Citizenship in the World

The requirements were completely rewritten.  The new requirements read as follows:

  1. Explain what citizenship in the world means to you and what you think it takes to be a good world citizen.
  2. Explain how one becomes a citizen in the United States, and explain the rights, duties, and obligations of U.S. citizenship. Discuss the similarities and differences between the rights, duties, and obligations of U.S. citizens and the citizens of two other countries.
  3. Do the following:
    1. Pick a current world event. In relation to this current event, discuss with your counselor how a country's national interest and its relationship with other countries might affect areas such as" its security, its economy, its values, and the health of its citizens.
    2. Select a foreign country and discuss with your counselor how its geography, natural resources, and climate influence its economy and its global partnerships with other countries.
  4. Do TWO of the following:
    1. Explain international law and how it differs from national law. Explain the role of international law and how international law can be used as a tool for conflict resolution.
    2. Using resources such as major daily newspapers, the Internet (with your parent's permission), and news magazines, observe a current issue that involves international trade, foreign exchange, balance of payments, tariffs, and free trade. Explain what you have learned. Include in your discussion an explanation of why countries must cooperate in order for world trade and global competition to thrive.
    3. Select TWO of the following organizations and describe their role in the world.
      1. The United Nations
      2. The World Court
      3. World Organization of the Scout Movement
      4. The World Health Organization
      5. Amnesty International
      6. The International Committee of the Red Cross
      7. CARE
  5. Do the following:
    1. Discuss the differences between constitutional and nonconstitutional governments.
    2. Name at least five different types of governments currently in power in the world.
    3. Show on a world map countries that use each of these five different forms of government.
  6. Do the following:
    1. Explain how a government is represented abroad and how the United States government is accredited to international organizations.
    2. Describe the roles of the following in the conduct of foreign relations.
      1. Ambassador
      2. Consul
      3. Bureau of International Information Programs
      4. Agency for International Development
      5. United States and Foreign Commercial Service
    3. Explain the purpose of a passport and visa for international travel.
  7. Do TWO of the following (with your parent's permission) and share with your counselor what you have learned:
    1. Visit the Web site of the U.S. State Department. Learn more about an issue you find interesting that is discussed on this Web site.
    2. Visit the Web site of an international news organization or foreign government, OR examine a foreign newspaper available at your local library, bookstore, or newsstand. Find a news story about a human right realized in the United States that is not recognized in another country.
    3. Visit with a student or Scout from another country and discuss the typical values, holidays, ethnic foods, and traditions practiced or enjoyed there.
    4. Attend a world Scout jamboree.
    5. Participate in or attend an international event in your area, such as an ethnic festival, concert, or play.

Composite Materials

This is a completely new merit badge.  We assume the merit badge was assigned ID number 137.  The requirements are as follows:

  1. Do the following:
    1. Explain the precautions that must be taken when handling, storing, and disposing of resins, reinforcements, and other materials used in composites. Include in your discussion the importance of health, safety, and environmental responsibility and awareness.
    2. Describe what a material safety data sheet (MSDS) is and tell why it is used.
  2. Do the following:
    1. Explain what are composite materials. Include a brief history of composites and how they have developed.
    2. Compare the similarities and differences between composites and wood, aluminum, copper, and steel. Explain the physical, electrical, mechanical, corrosive, flammability, cost, and other such properties. For each of these raw materials, give one example for how it can be shaped and used for a specific application.
  3. Describe how composite materials are made. Then do the following:
    1. Discuss three different composite reinforcement materials, their positive and negative characteristics, and their uses. Obtain the MSDS for each one and discuss the toxicity, disposal, and safe-handling sections for these materials.
    2. Discuss three different resins used in composites, their positive and negative characteristics, and their uses. Obtain the MSDS for each one and discuss the toxicity, disposal, and safe-handling sections for these materials. Include thermoset resins and thermoplastic resins in your discussion.
    3. For each of the three resins you chose for requirement 3b, think of a new application that might be worth developing.
  4. With your parent's permission and your counselor's approval do ONE of the following:
    1. Visit a company that manufactures or repairs products made with composites. Discuss what you learn with your counselor.
    2. Find three composites-related Web sites. Share and discuss what you learn with your counselor.
  5. Do the following:
    1. Use composite materials to complete two projects, at least one of which must come from the Composite Materials merit badge pamphlet. The second project may come from the pamphlet OR may be one you select on your own that has been approved by your counselor in advance.
    2. With your counselor's assistance, find an appropriate site where the projects can be safely completed under your counselor's supervision and/or the supervision of an adult approved by your counselor who is knowledgeable about composites.
    3. With your counselor, determine how the finished projects will be evaluated. Using those guidelines, evaluate the completed projects with your counselor.
  6. Find out about three career opportunities in composite materials. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.

Computers

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Discuss with your counselor the tips for online safety.
  2. Explain how the invention of the computer has affected society, science, and technology. In your explanation, give a short history of the computer.
  3. Do the following:
    1. Explain four different uses of computers.
    2. Describe three ways you and your family could use a personal computer other than for games and recreation.
  4. Explain to your counselor the following:
    1. The major parts of a computer system
    2. How the types of files used to store text, sound, pictures, and video are stored in a computer's memory
  5. Do the following:
    1. Explain what a program is and how it is developed.
    2. Give three examples of programming languages, and describe their uses.
    3. Name four software packages you or your family could use, and explain how you would use them.
    4. Discuss ways you can help protect a computer from viruses and how to keep secure information that has been saved on a computer.
    5. Describe how computers are linked to form the Internet and the World Wide Web.
  6. Do THREE of the following:
    1. Use a database manager to create a troop roster that includes the name, rank, patrol, and telephone number of each Scout. Show your counselor that you can sort the register by each of the following categories: rank, patrol, and alphabetically by name.
    2. Use a spreadsheet program to develop a food budget for a patrol weekend campout.
    3. Use a word processor to write a letter to the parents of your troop's Scouts inviting them to a court of honor. Use the program's mail merge feature to make a personalized copy of the letter for each family.
    4. Use a computer graphics program to design and draw a campsite plan for your troop, OR design a flyer for an upcoming troop event.
    5. Using a software package of your choice, develop a short presentation about a topic that has been approved by your counselor. For your presentation create at least 10 slides.
    6. Using an Internet search engine, find ideas about how to conduct a troop court of honor or campfire program. Print out a copy of the ideas from at least three different Web sites. Share what you found with your counselor, and explain how you used the search engine to find this information.
    7. Using a digital camera, take a picture of a troop activity. Transfer the picture file to a computer and use photographic software to make it small enough to send easily as an e-mail attachment. Then, using a computer connected to the Internet (with your parent's permission), send an e-mail to someone you know. In your message, include the photograph as an attachment. Verify that the person received your e-mail and was able to view the attachment.
    8. Describe two computer chip-based devices, and explain how they are "smarter" because of the chip and its program.
  7. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Visit a business or an industrial plant that uses computers. Observe what tasks the computers accomplish, and be prepared to discuss what you have learned.
    2. Using a software package of your choice for computer aided design (CAD), create an engineering-style drawing of a simple object. Include the top, bottom, and at least one side view and the dimensions.
    3. Use a general purpose programming language to write a simple program application of your choice, subject to approval by your counselor.
    4. Design a Web page for your troop, patrol, school, or place of worship. You need not post the page to a Web site. However, if you decide to do so, you will first need to get your parent's permission and your counselor's approval, as well as permission from the host site.
  8. For each of the following categories, discuss several related terms: input and output devices, storage media, memory, processors and coprocessors, modems or network cards, networks, World Wide Web and Internet, electronic mail, Wi-Fi.
  9. Explain the following to your counselor:
    1. Why it is not permissible to accept a free copy of a copyrighted computer game or program from a friend
    2. The restrictions and limitations of downloading music from the Internet
    3. Why copyright laws exist
  10. Pick two career opportunities in the computer field that interest you. Find out what education, training, and experience those positions require. Report what you learn to your counselor.

Crime Prevention

Requirement 1 was revised. Old requirements 3 and 8 were deleted. Old requirements 4, 5, 6, and 9 were renumbered as 3, 4, 5, and 8. Old Items 4a and 4e were deleted, and items 4b, 4c, and 4d became 3a, 3b, and 3c. The introduction to Old item 5 (now item 4) was revised. A new Item 6 was added. Item 7 was revised by adding text with the old text became part of item 7b. A new Item 9 was added.  The changes are shown below:

  1. Define "crime" and "crime prevention".
    Discuss the role and value of laws in society with regard to crime and crime prevention. Include in your discussion the definitions of "crime" and "crime prevention."
  2. Prepare a notebook of newspaper and other clippings that addresses crime and crime prevention efforts in your community.
  3. Do the following:
    1. Talk to a store owner or manager about the impact of crime on the way the store is run and how crime affects prices.
    2. Talk with a school teacher, principal, or school officer about the impact of crime in your school.
    3. Explain what a neighborhood watch is and how it can benefit your neighborhood.
    4. Define white-collar crime and explain how it affects all citizens of the United States.
  4. 4. Discuss the following with your counselor:
    1. The role of a sheriffs department or police department in crime prevention .
      (b) The role of citizens, including youth, in crime prevention
    2. (c) Gangs and their impact on the community
    3. (d) When and how to report a crime
      (e) The role and value of laws in society
  5. 5. Do the following:
    After doing EACH of the following, discuss with your counselor what you have learned.
    1. Inspect your neighborhood for opportunities that may lead to crime. Learn how to do a crime prevention survey.
    2. Using the checklist in this (the merit badge) pamphlet, conduct a security survey of your home and discuss the results with your family.
  6. 6. Teach your family or patrol members how to protect themselves from crime at home. at school, in your community, and while traveling.
  7. Help raise awareness about one school safety issue facing students by doing ONE of the following:
    1. Create a poster for display on a school bulletin board.
    2. With permission from school officials, create a page long public service announcement that could be read over the public address system at school or posted on the school's Web site.
    3. Make a presentation to a group such as a Cub Scout den that addresses the issue.
  8. Visit a jail or detention facility. Discuss your experience with your counselor.
    Do ONE of the following:
    1. Assist in the planning and organization of a crime prevention program in your community such as Neighborhood Watch, Community Watch, or Crime Stoppers. Explain how this program can benefit your neighborhood.
    2. With your parent's and counselor's approval, visit a jail or detention facility or a criminal court hearing. Discuss your experience with your counselor.
  9. Discuss with your counselor the purpose and operation of agencies in your community that help law enforcement personnel prevent crime, and how the agencies help in emergency situations.
    9. Discuss the following with your counselor:
    1. How drug abuse awareness programs, such as "Drugs: A Deadly Game," help prevent crime
    2. Why alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are sometimes called "gateway drugs" and how "gateway drugs" can lead to the use of other drugs
    3. Three resources in your city where a person with a drug problem or drug-related problem can go for help
    4. How the illegal sale and use of drugs lead to other crimes
    5. How to recognize child abuse
    6. The "three R's" of Youth Protection
  10. Discuss the following with your counselor:
    1. The role of a sheriff's or police department in crime prevention.
    2. The purpose and operation of agencies in your community that help law enforcement personnel prevent crime, and how those agencies function during emergency situations.
    3. Explain the role private security plays in crime prevention.
    4. Choose a career in the crime prevention or security industry that interests you. Describe the level of education required and responsibilities of a person in that position. Tell why this position interests you.

Disability Awareness

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Discuss with your counselor proper disability etiquette and person first language. Explain why these are important.
  2. Visit an agency that works with people with physical, mental, emotional, or educational disabilities. Collect and read information about the agency's activities. Learn about opportunities its members have for training, employment, and education.
  3. Do TWO of the following:
    1. Talk to a Scout who has a disability and learn about his experiences taking part in Scouting activities and earning different merit badges.
    2. Talk to an individual who has a disability and learn about this person's experiences and the activities in which this person likes to participate.
    3. Learn how people with disabilities take part in a particular adaptive sport or recreational activity. Discuss what you have learned with your counselor.
    4. Learn about independent living aids such as service animals, canes, and teletypewriters (TTYs). Discuss with your counselor how people use such aids.
  4. Visit TWO of the following locations and take notes about the accessibility to people with disabilities. In your notes, give examples of five things that could be done to improve upon the site and five things about the site that make it friendly to people with disabilities. Discuss your observations with your counselor.
    1. Your school
    2. Your place of worship
    3. Your Scout camping site
    4. A public exhibit or attraction (such as a theater, museum, or park)
  5. Explain what advocacy is. Do ONE of the following advocacy activities:
    1. Present a counselor approved disabilities awareness program to a Cub Scout pack or other group. During your presentation, explain and use person first language.
    2. Find out about disability awareness education programs in your school or school system, or contact a disability advocacy agency. Volunteer with a program or agency for eight hours.
    3. Using resources such as disability advocacy agencies, government agencies, the Internet (with your parent's permission), and news magazines, learn about myths and misconceptions that influence the general public's understanding of people with disabilities. List 10 myths and misconceptions about people with disabilities and learn the facts about each myth. Share your list with your counselor, then use it to make a presentation to a Cub Scout pack or other group.
  6. Make a commitment to your merit badge counselor describing what you will do to show a positive attitude about people with disabilities and to encourage positive attitudes among others. Discuss how your awareness has changed as a result of what you have learned.
  7. Name five professions that provide services to people with disabilities. Pick one that interests you and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss what you learn with your counselor, and tell why this profession interests you.

Energy

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Do the following:
    1. Find an article on the use or conservation of energy. Discuss with your counselor what in the article was interesting to you, the questions it raises, and what ideas it addresses that you do not understand.
    2. After you have completed requirements 2 through 8, revisit the article you found for requirement la. Explain to your counselor what you have learned in completing the requirements that helps you better understand the article.
  2. Show you understand energy forms and conversions by doing the following:
    1. Explain how THREE of the following devices use energy, and explain their energy conversions: toaster, greenhouse, lightbulb, bow drill, nuclear reactor, sweat lodge.
    2. Construct a system that makes at least two energy conversions and explain this to your counselor.
  3. Show you understand energy efficiency by explaining to your counselor a common example of a situation where energy moves through a system to produce a useful result. Do the following:
    1. Identify the parts of the system that are affected by the energy movement.
    2. Name the system's primary source of energy.
    3. Identify the useful outcomes of the system.
    4. Identify the energy losses of the system.
  4. Conduct an energy audit of your home. Keep a 14 day log that records what you and your family did to reduce energy use. Include the following in your report and, after the 14 day period, discuss what you have learned with your counselor.
    1. List the types of energy used in your home such as electricity, wood, oil, liquid petroleum, and natural gas, and tell how each is delivered and measured, and the current cost; OR record the transportation fuel used, miles driven, miles per gallon, and trips using your family car or another vehicle.
    2. Describe ways you and your family can use energy resources more wisely. In preparing your discussion, consider the energy required for the things you do and use on a daily basis (cooking, showering, using lights, driving, watching TV, using the computer). Explain how you can change your energy use through reuse and recycling.
  5. In a notebook, identify and describe five examples of energy waste in your school or community. Suggest in each case possible ways to reduce this waste. Describe the idea of trade offs in energy use. In your response, do the following:
    1. Explain how the changes you suggest would lower costs, reduce pollution, or otherwise improve your community.
    2. Explain what changes to routines, habits, or convenience are necessary to reduce energy waste. Tell why people might resist the changes you suggest.
  6. Prepare pie charts showing the following information, and explain to your counselor the important ideas each chart reveals. Tell where you got your information. Explain how cost affects the use of a nonrenewable energy resource and makes alternatives practical.
    1. The energy resources that supply the United States with most of its energy
    2. The share of energy resources used by the United States that comes from other countries
    3. The proportion of energy resources used by homes, businesses, industry, and transportation
    4. The fuels used to generate America's electricity
    5. The world's known and estimated primary energy resource reserves
  7. Tell what is being done to make FIVE of the following energy systems produce more usable energy. In your explanation, describe the technology, cost, environmental impacts, and safety concerns.
    • Biomass digesters or waste to energy plants
    • Cogeneration plants
    • Fossil fuel power plants
    • Fuel cells
    • Geothermal power plants
    • Nuclear power plants
    • Solar power systems
    • Tidal energy, wave energy, or ocean thermal energy conversion devices
    • Wind turbines
  8. Find out what opportunities are available for a career in energy. Choose one position that interests you and describe the education and training required.

Environmental Science

Changes were made to requirement 2.  In requirement 3, new activities were added to each area of study and existing sections were revised.  Old requirement 4 was deleted. Old requirement 5 became requirement 4, with changes. Old requirements 6 & 7 were removed and replaced with a new requirement 5. Old requirement 8 was revised and became requirement 6. The changes are shown below:

  1. Define the following terms and describe the relationships among them : population, community, ecosystem, biosphere, symbiosis, niche, habitat, conservation, threatened species, endangered species, extinction, pollution prevention, brownfield, ozone, watershed, airshed, nonpoint source, hybrid vehicle, fuel cell .

  2. Do ONE activity in EACH of the following categories (using the activities in this {the merit badge}pamphlet as the basis for planning and carrying out your projects):

    1. Ecology

      1. Discuss what is an ecosystem. Tell how it is maintained in nature and how it survives.

    2. Air Pollution

      1. Record the trips taken, mileage, and fuel consumption of a family car for seven days, and calculate how many miles per gallon the car gets. Determine whether any trips could have been combined ("chained") rather than taken out and back. Using the idea of trip chaining, determine how many miles and gallons of gas could have been saved in those seven days.

      2. (2) Conduct a study to test the effects of acid rain on plants. Discuss your findings with your counselor.
        Explain what is acid rain. In your explanation, tell how it affects plants and the environment and the steps society can take to help reduce its effects.

    3. Water Pollution

      1. Describe the impact of a waterborne pollutant on an aquatic community. Write a 100-word report on how that pollutant affected aquatic fife, what the effect was, and whether the effect is linked to biomagnification.

    4. Land Pollution

      1. Perform an experiment to determine the effect of an oil spill on land. Share your journal and discuss Discuss your conclusions with your counselor.

      2. Photograph an area affected by erosion. Share your photographs with your counselor and discuss why the area has eroded and what might be done to help alleviate the erosion.

    5. Endangered Species

      1. With your parent's and counselor's approval, work with a natural resource professional to identify two projects that have been approved to improve the habitat for a threatened or endangered species in your area. Visit the site of one of these projects and report on what you saw.

    6. Pollution Prevention, Resource Recovery, and Conservation

      1. Look around your home and determine 10 ways your family can help reduce pollution. Practice at least two of these methods for seven days and discuss with your counselor what you have learned.

      2. Determine 10 ways to conserve resources or use resources more efficiently in your home, at school, or at camp. Practice at least two of these methods for seven days and discuss with your counselor what you have learned.

      3. (1) Perform an experiment on packaging materials to find out which ones are biodegradable. Discuss your conclusions with your counselor.

      4. Find out if your local community has a recycling program in effect. If it does, find out what items are recycled, and who pays for recycling. If your community does not have a recycling program, write questions for and conduct a survey on recycling. Include questions about attitudes toward recycling, what should be recycled, and your community's willingness to support a recycling program. Discuss your findings with your counselor.

  3. Build an ecosystem in a bottle. Include soil, plants, fungi, and small animals found in your local environment. Maintain the ecosystem for at least seven days after completing construction of the ecosystem. Observe it daily, and keep a record of your observations. Discuss your observations with your counselor.
    (5 ) Choose an outdoor area to study. In your study area, do ONE of the following:
    Choose two outdoor study areas that are very different from one another (e.g., hilltop vs. bottom of a hill; field vs. forest; swamp vs. dry land). For BOTH study areas, do ONE of the following:

    1. Mark off three study plots a plot of 4 square yards each in each study area , and count the number of species found there. Then estimate Estimate how much space is occupied by each plant species found in the plots and the type and number of nonplant species you find . Write a report that adequately discusses the biodiversity and population density of your study area these study areas . Discuss your report with your counselor.

    2. Make four visits to the study area Make at least three visits to each of the two study areas (for a total of six visits) , staying for at least 20 minutes each time, to observe the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem. Space each visit far enough apart that there are readily apparent differences in the observations. Keep a journal of your observations, including a discussion of differences noted during the four visits. Write a report on your observations and discuss it that includes the differences you observe. Then, write a short report that adequately addresses your observations, including how the differences of the study areas might relate to the differences noted, and discuss this with your counselor.

  4. Using the construction project provided or a plan you create on your own, identify the items that would need to be included in an environmental impact statement for the project planned.

  5. Propose a hypothetical construction project in your community and prepare a limited environmental impact statement for the project. Study the area to see what the impact of the project might be upon the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
    Find out about three career opportunities in environmental science. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.

  6. Develop a project that would help solve an environmental problem, reduce an environmental impact, or affect environmental awareness in your community. Include plans for a specific project that could be done by your patrol or troop.

  7. Discuss three possible careers in the field of environmental science. Identify the education that you would need to pursue ONE of these careers.


Forestry

The requirements were substantially rewritten. The revisions are shown below.

  1. Prepare a field notebook, make a collection, and identify 15 species of trees, wild shrubs, or vines in a local forested area. Include a written description of: Write a description in which you identify and discuss the following:
    1. Identifying characteristics of leaf, twig, and fruit samples.
      The characteristics of leaf, twig, cone, or fruiting bodies
    2. The habitat in which these trees, or shrubs or vines are found.
    3. The important ways each tree, shrub, or vine is used by humans or wildlife and whether the species is native or was introduced to the area. If it is not native, explain whether it is considered invasive or potentially invasive.
      Chief ways each tree or shrub is used by human and wildlife.
      d. The forest's successional stage, what its history has been, and what its future is.
  2. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Collect and identify wood samples of 10 species of trees. List several ways the wood of each species of wood can be used.
    2. Find and examine several stumps or logs three stumps, logs, or core samples that show variations in the growth rate of their ring patterns. In the field notebook you prepared for requirement 1, describe the location or origin of each example (including elevation, aspect, slope, and the position on the slope), and discuss possible reasons for the variations in growth rate. Photograph or sketch each example. Prepare a field notebook describing their location and discuss possible reasons for the variations.
    3. Find and examine two types of animal, insect, or damage on trees. In the field notebook you prepared for requirement 1, identify the damage, explain how the damage was caused, and describe the effects of the damage on the trees. Photograph or sketch each example.
  3. Be able to do Do the following:
    1. Describe contributions forests make to:
      1. Our economy in the form of products.
      2. Our social well-being, including recreation
      3. 2. Soil protection and increased fertility.
      4. 3. Clean water.
      5. 4. Clean air. (carbon cycling, sequestration)
      6. 5. Wildlife habitat
      7. 6 . Recreation Fisheries habitat
      8. Threatened and endangered species of plants and animals
    2. Tell which watershed or other source your community relies on for its water supply.
  4. Be able to describe Describe what forest management means, including the following :
    1. Multiple-use management
    2. Sustainable forest management
    3. b . Even-aged and uneven-aged management and silvicultural systems associated with each type.
    4. c. Intermediate cuttings.
    5. d . How   The role of prescribed burning and related forest management practices are used .
  5. With your parent's and counselor's approval, do Do ONE of the following:
    1. Visit a managed public or private forest area with its manager or someone a forester familiar with it. Write a brief report describing the type of forest, the management objectives, and the forestry techniques used to achieve the objectives.
      • The type of forest
      • The management objectives
      • The forestry techniques used to achieve the objectives.
    2. Take a trip to a logging operation or wood-using industrial plant and write a brief report describing:
      1. The species and size of trees being harvested or used and the location of the harvest area or manufacturer .
      2. The origin of the forest or stands of trees being utilized (e.g., planted or natural)
      3. The forest's successional stage. What is its future?
      4. Where the trees are coming from (land ownership) or where they are going (type of mill or processing plant)
        2 . Where the trees are going to or coming from.
      5. The products that are made from the trees
        3
        . What products are made from the trees or at the plant.
      6. 4. How the products are made and used .
      7. 5 . How the products are used.
        6.
        How waste materials from the logging operation or manufacturing plant are disposed of or utilized.
    3. Take part in a forest-fire prevention campaign in cooperation with your local fire warden, state wildfire agency, forester, or counselor. Write a brief report describing the campaign, how it will help prevent wildfires, and your part in it.
  6. Be able to do Do the following:
    1. Describe the consequences to forests that result from FIVE of the following elements: wildfire, absence of fire, insects, tree diseases, air pollution, overgrazing, deer or other wildlife overpopulation, improper harvest, and urbanization.
      Describe the damages to forests that result from:
      • Wildfire.
      • Insects.
      • Tree disease.
      • Overgrazing.
      • Improper harvest
    2. Explain what can be done to reduce the consequences you discussed in 6a.
      Tell what can be done to reduce these damages.
    3. Tell Describe what you should do if you discover a forest fire and how to control it a professional firefighting crew might control it. Name your state or local wildfire control agency.
  7. Visit one or more local foresters and write a brief report about the person (or persons). Or, write about a forester's occupation including the education, qualifications, career opportunities, and duties related to forestry.
    Do ONE of the following:
    1. Assist in carrying out a project that meets one or more of these objectives: timber stand improvement, watershed improvement, wildlife habitat improvement, recreation are improvement or range improvement.
    2. Take a part in a forest fire prevention campaign in cooperation with your local fire warden, forester, or counselor.
    3. Visit with one or more local foresters and write a brief report including education, qualifications, career opportunities, and objectives relating to forestry.

Genealogy

The requirements were substantially rewritten. The revisions are shown below.

  1. Explain the meaning of genealogy and genealogical resources.
    Explain to your counselor what the words genealogy, ancestor, and descendant mean.
  2. 2. Begin a pedigree chart with yourself and fill it in as far as you can at the beginning of your project. Add any additional names, dates, or places that you find.
    3. Show yourself as a child on a family group record form, and show one of your parents as a child on another family group record form.
    4. Interview an older relative to obtain information about your family. This interview may be in person, by telephone, or by letter. Add any information obtained to your pedigree chart and family group records.
    5. Obtain at least one genealogical document showing proof of some information on your pedigree chart or family group records. This document may be located in your home, a courthouse, an archive, or library, etc.
    6. Tell how you would evaluate genealogical information.
    7.
    Do ONE of the following:
    1. Do a time line for yourself or for a close relative. Then write a short biography based on that time line.
    2. Keep a journal for 6 weeks, writing in at least once weekly. You must write in it at least once a week.
    3. Write a short history of yourself or of a close relative.
  3. With your parent's help, choose a relative or a family acquaintance you can interview in person, by telephone, or by e-mail or letter. Record the information you collect so you do not forget it.
    8.  Do ONE of the following:
    1. Tell how the development of computers is affecting the world of genealogy.
    2. Tell how the development of photography (including microfilming) had influenced genealogy.
    3. Tell how personal and family history have begun to influence the way society looks at local, national, and international history.
  4. Do the following:
    1. Name three types of genealogical resources and explain how these resources can help you chart your family tree.
    2. Obtain at least one genealogical document that supports an event that is or can be recorded on your pedigree chart or family group record. The document could be found at home or at a government office, religious organization, archive, or library.
    3. Tell how you would evaluate the genealogical information you found for requirement 4b.
  5. 9. Contact ONE if the following and ask a question relating to its genealogical services or activities; report the results:
    Contact ONE of the following individuals or institutions. Ask what genealogical services, records, or activities this individual or institution provides, and report the results:
    1. A genealogical or lineage society
    2. A professional genealogist (someone who gets paid for doing genealogical research)
    3. b. A surname organization, such as your family's organization
      c. A professional genealogist
    4. A genealogical education facility or institution.
    5. A genealogical record repository of any type (courthouse, genealogical library, state or national archive archives, state library, national archives, etc.)
  6. 10. Tell where you would find current information about genealogical records and research methods.
    Begin your family tree by listing yourself and include at least two additional generations. You may complete this requirement by using the chart provided in the Genealogy merit badge pamphlet or the genealogy software program of your choice.
  7. Complete a family group record form, listing yourself and your brothers and sisters as the children. On another family group record form, show one of your parents and his or her brothers and sisters as the children. This requirement may be completed using the chart provided or the genealogy software program of your choice.
  8. Do the following:
    1. Explain the effect computers and the Internet are having on the world
      of genealogy.
    2. Explain how photography (including microfilming) has influenced genealogy.
  9. Discuss what you have learned about your family and your family members through your genealogical research.

Geology

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Define geology. Discuss how geologists learn about rock formations. In geology, explain why the study of the present is important to understanding the past.
  2. Pick three resources that can be extracted or mined from Earth for commercial use. Discuss with your counselor how each product is discovered and processed.
  3. Review a geologic map of your area with your counselor and discuss the different rock types and estimated ages of rocks represented. Determine whether the rocks are horizontal, folded, or faulted, and explain how you arrived at your conclusion.
  4. Do ONE of the following:
    1. With your parent's and counselor's approval, visit with a geologist, land use planner, or civil engineer. Discuss this professional's work and the tools required in this line of work. Learn about a project that this person is now working on, and ask to see reports and maps created for this project. Discuss with your counselor what you have learned.
    2. Learn about the career opportunities available in geology. Pick one that interests you and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss what courses might be useful for such a career. You may use resources found on the Internet (with your parent's permission), at the library, in books and articles from periodicals, from television programs, and at school.
  5. Complete ONE of the options listed below A, B, C, or D.
    1. Surface and Sedimentary Processes Option
      1. Conduct an experiment approved by your counselor that demonstrates how sediments settle from suspension in water. Explain to your counselor what the exercise shows and why it is important.
      2. Using topographical maps provided by your counselor, plot the stream gradients (different elevations divided by distance) for four different stream types (straight, meandering, dendritic, trellis). Explain which ones flow fastest and why, and which ones will carry larger grains of sediment and why.
      3. On a stream diagram, show areas where you will ,find the following features: cut bank, fill bank, point bar, medial channel bars, lake delta. Describe the relative sediment grain size found in each feature.
      4. Conduct an experiment approved by your counselor that shows how some sedimentary material carried by water may be too small for you to see without a magnifier.
      5. Visit a nearby stream. Find clues that show the direction of water flow, even if the water is missing. Record your observations in a notebook, and sketch those clues you observe. Discuss your observations with your counselor.
    2. Energy Resources Option
      1. List the top five Earth resources used to generate electricity in the United States.
      2. Discuss source rock, trap, and reservoir rock - the three components necessary for the occurrence of oil and gas underground.
      3. Explain how each of the following items is used in subsurface exploration to locate oil or gas: reflection seismic, electric well logs, stratigraphic correlation, offshore platform, geologic map, subsurface structure map, subsurface isopach map, and core samples and cutting samples.
      4. Using at least 20 data points provided by your counselor, create a subsurface structure map and use it to explain how subsurface geology maps are used to find oil, gas, or coal resources.
      5. Do ONE of the following activities:
        1. Make a tabletop display showing how oil and gas or coal is found, extracted, and processed. You may use maps, books, articles from periodicals, and research found on the Internet (with your parent's permission). Share the display with your counselor or a small group (such as your class at school) in a five minute presentation.
        2. With your parent's and counselor's permission and assistance, arrange for a visit to an operating drilling rig. While there, talk with a geologist and ask to see what the geologist does onsite. Ask to see cutting samples taken at the site.
    3. Mineral Resources Option
      1. Define rock. Discuss the three classes of rocks including their origin and characteristics.
      2. Define mineral. Discuss the origin of minerals and their chemical composition and identification properties, including hardness, specific gravity, color, streak, cleavage, luster, and crystal form.
      3. Do ONE of the following:
        1. Collect 10 different rocks or minerals. Record in a notebook where you obtained (found, bought, traded) each one. Label each specimen, identify its class and origin, determine its chemical composition, and list its physical properties. Share your collection with your counselor.
        2. With your counselor's assistance, identify 15 different rocks and minerals. List the name of each specimen, tell whether it is a rock or mineral, and give the name of its class (if it is a rock) or list its identifying physical properties (if it is a mineral).
      4. List three of the most common road building materials used in your area. Explain how each material is produced and how each is used in road building.
      5. Do ONE of the following activities:
        1. With your parent's and counselor's approval, visit an active mining site, quarry, or sand and gravel pit. Tell your counselor what you learned about the resources extracted from this location and how these resources are used by society.
        2. With your counselor, choose two examples of rocks and two examples of minerals. Discuss the mining of these materials and describe how each is used by society.
        3. With your parent's and counselor's approval, visit the office of a civil engineer and learn how geology is used in construction. Discuss what you learned with your counselor.
    4. Earth History Option
      1. Create a chart showing suggested geological eras and periods. Determine which period the rocks in your region might have been formed.
      2. Explain to your counselor the processes of burial and fossilization, and discuss the concept of extinction. Identify three plants or animals on the threatened or endangered list of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
      3. Explain to your counselor how fossils provide information about ancient life, environment, climate, and geography. Discuss the following terms and explain how animals from each habitat obtain food: benthonic, pelagic, littoral, lacustrine, open marine, brackish, fluvial, eolian, protected reef.
      4. Collect 10 different fossil plants or animals. Record in a notebook where you obtained (found, bought, traded) each one. Classify each specimen to the best of your ability, and explain how each one might have survived and obtained food. Tell what else you can learn from these fossils.
      5. Do ONE of the following:
        1. Visit a science museum or the geology department of a local university that has fossils on display. With your parent's and counselor's approval, before you go, make an appointment with a curator or guide who can show you how the fossils are preserved and prepared for display.
        2. Visit a structure in your area that was built using fossiliferous rocks. Determine what kind of rock was used and tell your counselor the kinds of fossil evidence you found there.

Photography

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Explain how the following elements and terms affect the quality of a picture:
    1. Light-natural light/ambient, flash
    2. Exposure-aperture (f-stops), shutter speed, depth of field
    3. Composition-rule of thirds, leading lines, framing, depth
    4. Angle of view
    5. Stopping action
  2. Explain the basic parts and operation of a film camera or digital camera. Explain how an exposure is made when you take a picture.
  3. Discuss with your counselor the differences between a film camera and a digital camera. List at least five advantages and five disadvantages of using a digital camera versus using a film camera.
  4. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Produce a picture story using the photojournalistic technique of documenting an event. Share your plan with your counselor and get your counselor's input and approval before you proceed. Then, using either a film camera or a digital camera, produce your approved picture story. Process your images and select eight to 12 images that best tell your story. Arrange your images in order, then mount the prints on a poster board. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board. Share your picture story with your counselor.
    2. Choose a topic that interests you to photograph for an exhibit or display. Get your counselor's approval, then photograph (digital or film) your topic. Process your images. Choose 20 of your favorite images and mount them on poster board. Share your display with your counselor. If you are using digital images, you may create a slide show on your computer or produce printouts for your poster board.
  5. Discuss with your counselor the career opportunities in photography. Pick one that interests you and explain how to prepare for such a career. Discuss with your counselor the education and training such a career would require.

Pioneering

The requirements were substantially rewritten. The revisions are shown below.

  1. Demonstrate how to coil and throw a 40-foot length of 1/4 inch rope.
    Show that you know first aid for injuries or illness that could occur while working on pioneering projects, including minor cuts and abrasions, bruises, rope burns, blisters, splinters, sprains, heat and cold reactions, dehydration, and insect bites or stings.
  2. Present five different rope samples, of any size or material. Explain the characteristics of each type of rope -- its strength, mildew resistance, durability, and stretch. Explain where and how each type of rope can be used in pioneering.
    Do the following:
    1. Successfully complete Tenderfoot requirements 4a and 4b and First Class requirements 7a, 7b, and 7c. (These are the rope-related requirements.)
    2. Tie the following: square knot, bowline, sheepshank, sheet bend, and roundturn with two half hitches.
    3. Demonstrate the following: tripod and round lashings.
  3. Demonstrate how to tie the following seven basic knots: square knot, timber hitch, clove hitch, bowline, sheepshank, sheet bend, and roundturn with two half- hitches. Also select five more knots found in the PIONEERING merit badge pamphlet. Tie each one for the examiner, and tell where it could be used in pioneering, camping, or other Scout activities.
    Explain why it is useful to be able to throw a rope, then demonstrate how to coil and throw a 40-foot length of 1/4- or 3/8-inch rope. Explain how to improve your throwing distance by adding weight to the end of your rope.
  4. Explain the differences between synthetic ropes and natural-fiber ropes. Discuss which types of rope are suitable for pioneering work and why. Include the following in your discussion: breaking strength, safe working loads, and the care and storage of rope.
  5. 4. Demonstrate how to make the back splice, eye splice, and short splice using 1/4-inch three-strand rope.
    Explain the uses for the back splice, eye splice, and short splice. Using 1/4- or 3/8-inch three-stranded rope, demonstrate how to form each splice.
  6. 5. Construct a device or machine to make rope. Then use the device with binder twine to make a 6-foot length of rope Using a rope-making device or machine, make a rope at least 6 feet long consisting of three strands, each having three yarns. Also demonstrate one method of whipping the end of the rope.
  7. 6 . Build a three-two-one or a log-and-stakes anchor using pioneering stakes. Build the anchor at a size suitable to anchor one end of a monkey bridge.
    Build a scale model of a signal tower or a monkey bridge. Correctly anchor the model using either the 1-1-1 anchoring system or the log and stake anchoring method. Describe the design of your project and explain how the anchoring system works.
  8. 7. Demonstrate the use of rope tackle to lift a weight of 25 pounds and pulling   . Pull a log at least 6 inches in diameter and 6 feet long with the tackle. Use the tackle to put tension a strain on a line. Explain the advantages and limitations of using a rope tackle. In your explanation, describe the potential damage that friction can do to a rope.
  9. 8. By yourself, build an A-trestle OR X-trestle OR H-trestle H-frame trestle with ropes and spars using square and diagonal lashings. Explain the application of the trestle you build. Demonstrate how to tie two spars together using a west country shear lashing.
  10. 9. With a group of Scouts, OR on your own, select build a pioneering project. Before building, present a rough sketch of the project and a list of the ropes and spars needed to build it. With your counselor's guidance, create a rough sketch of the project. Make a list of the ropes and spars needed, then build the project. (Note: This requirement may be done at summer camp, at district or council events, or on a troop camp outing.)

Plant Science

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Make a drawing and identify five or more parts of a flowering plant. Tell what each part does.
  2. Explain photosynthesis and tell why this process is important. Tell at least five ways that humans depend on plants.
  3. Explain how water, light, air, temperature, pollinators, and pests affect plants. Describe the nature and function of soil and explain its importance. Tell about the texture, structure, and composition of fertile soil. Tell how soil may be improved.
  4. Tell how to propagate plants by seeds, roots, cuttings, tubers, and grafting. Grow a plant by ONE of these methods.
  5. List by common name at least 10 native plants and 10 cultivated plants that grow near your home. List five invasive nonnative plants in your area and tell how they may be harmful. Tell how the spread of invasive plants may be avoided or controlled in ways that are not damaging to humans, wildlife, and the environment.
  6. Name and tell about careers in agronomy, horticulture, and botany. Write a paragraph about a career in one of these fields that interests you.
  7. Choose ONE of the following options and complete each requirement:
    1. Agronomy
      1. Describe how to prepare a seedbed.
      2. Make and use a seed germination tester to test 50 seeds of four of the following plants: corn, cotton, alfalfa, soybeans, clover, wheat, rice, rye, barley. Determine the percentage of live seeds.
      3. Tell about one important insect pest and one important disease that damage each of the following: corn, small grains, cotton. Collect and name five weeds that compete with crops in your locality. Tell how to control these weeds without harming people, wildlife, or useful insects.
      4. On a map of the United States, identify the chief regions where corn, cotton, forage crops, small grain crops, and oil crops grow. Tell how climate and location of these regions make them leaders in the production of these crops.
      5. Complete ONE of the following alternatives:
        1. Corn
          1. Grow a plot of corn and have your plot inspected by your counselor. Record seed variety or experimental code number.
          2. Tell about modern methods of commercial corn farming and the contributions that corn makes to today’s food and fuel supply.
          3. Tell about an insect that can damage corn, and explain how it affects corn production and how it is controlled.
        2. Cotton
          1. Grow a plot of cotton and have your plot inspected by your counselor.
          2. Tell about modern methods of commercial cotton farming, and about the uses of cotton fiber and seed and the economic value of this crop.
          3. Tell about an insect that can damage cotton, and explain how it affects cotton production and how it is controlled.
        3. Forage Crops
          1. Collect, count, and label samples of each for display: perennial grasses, annual grasses, legumes, and broadleaf weeds. Indicate how each grass and legume is used. Tell the kind of site where you found each sample.
          2. Explain how legumes can be used to enrich the soil and how they may deplete it under certain conditions. Explain how livestock may enrich or deplete the soil.
          3. Name five poisonous plants that are dangerous to livestock, and tell the different ways of using forage crops as feed for livestock.
        4. Small Grains
          1. Give production figures for small grain crops listed in the U.S. Statistical Report or Agricultural Statistics Handbook for the latest year available.
          2. Help in harvesting a crop of grain. Tell how to reduce harvesting losses and about modern methods of growing one small grain crop.
          3. Visit a grain elevator, flour mill, cereal plant, feed or seed company. Talk with the operator. Take notes, and describe the processes used and tell your patrol, troop, or class about your visit.
        5. Oil Crops
          1. Grow a plot of soybeans and have your plot inspected by your counselor.
          2. Tell about modern methods of growing soybeans on a commercial scale, and discuss the contributions soybeans make to our food supply.
          3. Explain why a killing frost just after emergence is critical for soybeans.
    2. Horticulture
      1. Visit one of the following places and tell what you learned about horticulture there: public garden, arboretum, retail nursery, wholesale nursery, production greenhouse, or conservatory greenhouse.
      2. Explain the following terms: hardiness zone, shade tolerance, pH, moisture requirement, native habitat, texture, cultivar, ultimate size, disease resistance, habit, evergreen, deciduous, annual, perennial. Find out what hardiness zone you live in and list 10 landscape plants you like that are suitable for your climate, giving the common name and scientific name for each.
      3. Do ONE of the following:
        1. Explain the difference between vegetative and sexual propagation methods, and tell some horticultural advantages of each. Grow a plant from a stem or root cutting or graft.
        2. Transplant 12 seedlings or rooted cuttings to larger containers and grow them for at least one month.
        3. Demonstrate good pruning techniques and tell why pruning is important.
        4. After obtaining permission, plant a tree or shrub properly in an appropriate site.
      4. Do EACH of the following:
        1. Explain the importance of good landscape design and selection of plants that are suitable for particular sites and conditions.
        2. Tell why it is important to know how big a plant will grow.
        3. Tell why slower-growing landscape plants are sometimes a better choice than faster-growing varieties.
      5. Choose ONE of the following alternatives and complete EACH of the requirements:
        1. Bedding Plants
          1. Grow bedding plants appropriate for your area in pots or flats from seed or cuttings in a manufactured soil mix. Explain why you chose the mix and tell what is in it.
          2. Transplant plants to a bed in the landscape and maintain the bed until the end of the growing season. Record your activities, observations, materials used, and costs.
          3. Demonstrate mulching, fertilizing, watering, weeding, and deadheading, and tell how each practice helps your plants.
          4. Tell some differences between gardening with annuals and perennials.
        2. Fruit, Berry, and Nut Crops
          1. Plant five fruit or nut trees, grapevines, or berry plants that are suited to your area. Take full care of fruit or nut trees, grapevines, or berry plants through one season.
          2. Prune a tree, vine, or shrub properly. Explain why pruning is necessary.
          3. Demonstrate one type of graft and tell why this method is useful.
          4. Describe how one fruit, nut, or berry crop is processed for use.
        3. Woody Ornamentals
          1. Plant five or more trees or shrubs in a landscape setting. Take full care of the trees or shrubs you have planted for one growing season.
          2. Prune a tree or shrub properly. Explain why pruning is necessary.
          3. List 10 trees (in addition to those listed in general requirement 5 above) and tell your counselor how each is used in the landscape. Give the common and scientific names.
          4. Describe the size, texture, color, flowers, leaves, fruit, hardiness, cultural requirements, and any special characteristics that make each type of tree or shrub attractive or interesting.
          5. Tell five ways trees help improve the quality of our environment.
        4. Home Gardening
          1. Design and plant a garden or landscape that is at least 10 by 10 feet.
          2. Plant 10 or more different types of plants in your garden. Tell why you selected particular varieties of vegetables and flowers. Take care of the plants in your garden for one season.
          3. Demonstrate soil preparation, staking, watering, weeding, mulching, composting, fertilizing, pest management, and pruning. Tell why each technique is used.
          4. Tell four types of things you could provide to make your home landscape or park a better place for birds and wildlife. List the common and scientific names of 10 kinds of native plants that are beneficial to birds and wildlife in your area.
    3. Field Botany
      1. Visit a park, forest, or other natural area near your home. While you are there:
        1. Determine which species of plants are the largest and which are the most abundant. Note whether they cast shade on other plants.
        2. Record environmental factors that may influence the presence of plants on your site, including latitude, climate, air and soil temperature, soil type and pH, geology, hydrology, and topography.
        3. Record any differences in the types of plants you see at the edge of a forest, near water, in burned areas, or near a road or railroad.
      2. Select a study site that is at least 100 by 100 feet. Make a list of the plants in the study site by groups of plants: canopy trees, small trees, shrubs, herbaceous wildflowers and grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, algae, fungi, lichens. Find out which of these are native plants and which are exotic (or nonnative).
      3. Tell how an identification key works and use a simple key to identify 10 kinds of plants (in addition to those in general requirement 5 above). Tell the difference between common and scientific names and tell why scientific names are important.
      4. After gaining permission, collect, identify, press, mount, and label 10 different plants that are common in your area. Tell why voucher specimens are important for documentation of a field botanist’s discoveries.
      5. Obtain a list of rare plants of your state. Tell what is being done to protect rare plants and natural areas in your state. Write a paragraph about one of the rare plants in your state.
      6. Choose ONE of the following alternatives and complete EACH of its requirements:
        1. Tree Inventory
          1. Identify the trees of your neighborhood or a park or section of your town.
          2. Collect, press, and label leaves, flowers, or fruits to document your inventory.
          3. List the types of trees by scientific name and give common names. Note the number and size (diameter at 4 feet above ground) of trees observed and determine the largest of each species in your study area.
          4. Lead a walk to teach others about trees and their value, OR write and distribute materials that will help others learn about trees.
        2. Transect Study
          1. Visit two sites, at least one of which is different from the one you visited for Field Botany requirement 1.
          2. Use the transect method to study the two different kinds of plant communities. The transects should be at least 500 feet long.
          3. At each site, record observations about the soil and other influencing factors AND do the following. Then make a graph or chart to show the results of your studies.
            1. Identify each tree within 10 feet of the transect line.
            2. Measure the diameter of each tree at 4 feet above the ground, and map and list each tree.
        3. Nested Plot
          1. Visit two sites, at least one of which is different from the one you visited for Field Botany requirement 1.
          2. Mark off nested plots and inventory two different kinds of plant communities.
          3. At each site, record observations about the soil and other influencing factors AND do the following. Then make a graph or chart to show the results of your studies.
            1. Identify, measure, and map each tree in a 100 by 100 foot plot. (Measure the diameter of each tree at 4 feet above the ground.)
            2. Identify and map all trees and shrubs in a 10 by 10 foot plot within each of the larger areas.
            3. Identify and map all plants (wildflowers, ferns, grasses, mosses, etc.) of a 4 by 4 foot plot within the 10 by 10 foot plot.
        4. Herbarium Visit
          1. Write ahead and arrange to visit an herbarium at a university, park, or botanical garden; OR, visit an herbarium Web site (with your parent’s permission).
          2. Tell how the specimens are arranged and how they are used by researchers. If possible, observe voucher specimens of a plant that is rare in your state.
          3. Tell how a voucher specimen is mounted and prepared for permanent storage. Tell how specimens should be handled so that they will not be damaged.
          4. Tell about the tools and references used by botanists in an herbarium.
        5. Plant Conservation Organization Visit
          1. Write ahead and arrange to visit a private conservation organization or government agency that is concerned with protecting rare plants and natural areas.
          2. Tell about the activities of the organization in studying and protecting rare plants and natural areas.
          3. If possible, visit a nature preserve managed by the organization. Tell about land management activities such as controlled burning, or measures to eradicate invasive (nonnative) plants or other threats to the plants that are native to the area.

Public Health

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Explain what public health is. Explain how Escherichia colt (E. coli), tetanus, AIDS, encephalitis, salmonellosis, and Lyme disease are contracted. Then, pick any four of the following diseases and explain how each one is contracted: gonorrhea, West Nile virus, botulism, influenza, syphilis, hepatitis, emphysema, meningitis, herpes, lead poisoning. For all 10 diseases, explain the type or form of the disease (viral, bacterial, environmental, toxin), any possible vectors for transmission, ways to help prevent the spread of infection, and available treatments.
  2. Do the following:
    1. Explain the meaning of immunization.
    2. Name five diseases against which a young child should be immunized and two diseases against which everyone should be reimmunized periodically.
    3. Using the diseases you chose for requirement 1, discuss the diseases for which there is currently no treatment or immunization.
  3. Discuss the importance of safe drinking water in terms of the spread of disease. Then, demonstrate two ways for making water safe to drink that can be used while at camp. In your demonstration, explain how dishes and utensils should be washed, dried, and kept sanitary at home and in camp.
  4. Explain what a vector is and how insects and rodents can be controlled in your home, in your community, and at camp. Tell why this is important. In your discussion, explain which vectors can be easily controlled by individuals and which ones require long-term, collective action.
  5. With your parent's and counselor's approval, do ONE of the following:
    1. Visit a municipal wastewater treatment facility OR a solid-waste management operation in your community. Describe how the facility safely treats and disposes of sewage or solid waste. Describe how sewage and solid waste should be disposed of under wilderness camping conditions.
    2. Arrange to meet with the food service manager of a food service facility (such as a restaurant or school cafeteria) and visit this establishment. Observe food preparation, handling, and storage, and learn how the facility keeps foods from becoming contaminated. Find out what conditions allow microorganisms to multiply in food and how conditions can be controlled to help prevent the growth and dissemination of microorganisms. Learn how microorganisms in food can be killed. Discuss what you learned with your counselor.
  6. Do the following:
    1. Describe the health dangers from air, water, and noise pollution.
    2. Describe health dangers from tobacco use and alcohol and drug abuse.
  7. With your parent's and counselor's approval, visit your city, county, or state public health agency. Discuss how the agency addresses the concerns raised in requirements 1 through 6 and how the services provided by this agency affect your family. Then do the following:
    1. Compare the four leading causes of mortality (death) in your community for any of the past five years with the four leading causes of morbidity (incidence of disease) in your community. Explain how the public health agency you visited is trying to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates of these leading causes of illness and death.
    2. Explain the role of the health agency you visited related to the outbreak of diseases.
    3. Discuss the kinds of public assistance the agency is able to provide in case of disasters such as floods, storms, tornadoes, earthquakes, and other acts of destruction. Your discussion can include the cleanup necessary after a disaster occurs.
  8. Pick a profession in the public health sector that interests you. Find out the education, training, and experience required to work in this profession. Discuss what you learn with your counselor.

Pulp and Paper

The requirements were substantially rewritten. The revisions are shown below.

  1. Tell the history of papermaking. Describe the part paper products play in our society culture and economy.
  2. List the trees that which are the major sources of papermaking fibers. Then discuss what other uses are made of the trees and of the forestland owned by the pulp and paper industry. Describe the ways the industry plants, grows, and harvests trees. Explain how the industry manages its forests so that the supply of trees keeps pace with the demand, and tell about one way the industry has incorporated a sustainable forestry concept. Give two ways the papermaking industry has addressed pollution.
    1. Tell what other uses are made of the trees and of the forest land owned by the pulp and paper industry.
    2. Describe ways the industry plants, grows, and harvests trees.
  3. Describe two ways of getting fibers from wood, and explain the major differences . Tell why some pulps are bleached, and describe this process.
    1. What are the major differences?
    2. Why are some pulps bleached? Describe this process.
  4. Describe how paper is made. Discuss how paper is recycled. Make a sheet of paper by hand using the process described .
  5. What is coated paper, and why is it coated? Explain what coated paper is and why it is coated. Describe the major uses for different kinds of coated paper. Describe one other way that paper is In what other ways are papers changed by chemical or mechanical means to make new uses possible?
  6. Make a list of 15 pulp or paper products found in your home. Share examples Show samples of 10 such products with your counselor .
  7. With your parent's and counselor's approval, do Do ONE of the following:
    1. Visit a pulp mill. Describe how the mill converts they convert wood to into cellulose fibers.
    2. Visit a paper mill and get a sample of the paper made there . Describe the processes used for making this paper. Tell how it the paper will be used.
    3. Visit a container plant or box plant. Describe how the plant's products are product was made.
    4. Visit a printer or newspaper plant to learn how they use paper. Describe the visit. Explain why particular types of paper were used.
      Visit a recycled paper collection or sorting facility. Describe the operations there.
    5. Using books, magazines, your local library, the Internet (with your parent's permission), and any other suitable research tool, find out how paper products are developed. Find out what role research and development play in the papermaking industry. Share what you learn with your counselor.
  8. Describe six of the major jobs in the pulp and paper industry.
    Find out about three career opportunities in the papermaking industry that interest you. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you.

Reptile and Amphibian Study

Old item 8 is now 8a, and a new item 8b was added, and the wording of items 9b, 9c, and 10 were revised slightly..  Requirements 8-10 now read as follows:

  1. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Maintain one or more reptiles or amphibians for at least a month. Record food accepted, eating methods, changes in coloration, shedding of skins, and general habits; or keep the eggs of a reptile from the time of laying until hatching; or keep the eggs of an amphibian from the time of laying until their transformation into tadpoles (frogs) or larvae (salamanders).
    2. Choose a reptile or amphibian that you can observe at a local zoo, aquarium, nature center, or other such exhibit (such as your classroom or school). Study the specimen weekly for a period of three months. At each visit, sketch the specimen in its captive habitat and note any changes in its coloration, shedding of skins, and general habits and behavior. Find out, either from information you locate on your own or by talking to the caretaker, what this species eats and what are its native habitat and home range, preferred climate, average life expectancy, and natural predators. Also identify any human caused threats to its population and any laws that protect the species and its habitat. After the observation period, share what you have learned with your counselor.
  2. Do TWO of the following:
    1. Identify at night three kinds of toads or frogs by their voices. Imitate the song of each for your counselor. Stalk each with a flashlight and discover how each sings and from where.
    2. Identify by sight eight species of reptiles or amphibians.
    3. Using visual aids, give a brief talk to a small group on three different reptiles and amphibians.
  3. Tell five superstitions or false beliefs about reptiles and amphibians and give a correct explanation for each. Give seven examples of unusual behavior or other true facts about reptiles and amphibians.

Scholarship

Even though this badge was included in the list of changed merit badges in Boy Scout Requirements 2005 (33215A), the OLD requirements appeared in that book, rather than the new ones shown below, which are found in the new edition of the Scholarship merit badge pamphlet (33384A).  This was an editorial error, and has been corrected in the 2006 edition (33215B). No other changes have been made


Shotgun Shooting

The requirements book lists changes to the following requirements:1f-1i, and Shotgun Shooting option (modern Shotshell) 2b.  However, the new Shotgun Shooting merit badge pamphlet issued during 2005 has changes to substantially all of the requirements. We assume the omission of the other changes is an editorial error.

Since there were two sets of conflicting requirements, we asked the National BSA office which requirements Scouts should follow, and their response was:

Use the requirements in the Boy Scout Requirements Book.

The changes to the requirements which appear in the booklet are as follows:

    1. Explain the main points of hunting laws in your state and give any special laws on the use of guns or ammunition.
      Successfully complete a state hunter education course, or obtain a copy of the hunting laws for your state, then do the following:
      1. Explain the main points of hunting laws in your state and give any special laws on the use of guns or ammunition, and
      2. List the kinds of wildlife that can be legally hunted in your state.
    2. List the kinds of wildlife that can be legally hunted in your state.
      Explain to your counselor the proper hygiene guidelines used in shooting.
    3. Identify and explain the shotgun sports shot in the Olympic Games. Identify places in your community where you could shoot these sports.
      Identify and explain three shotgun sports. Identify places in your community where you could shoot these sports and explain how you can join or be a part of shooting sports activities.
    4. List the sources that you could contact for information on firearms and their use.
      Give your counselor a list of sources that you could contact for information on firearms and their use.
  1.  
    1. Identify the rules for safe gun handling.
      Identify and demonstrate the rules for safely handling a shotgun.
      Demonstrate how to handle shotguns in a safe manner.

In the Shotgun Shooting merit badge pamphlet, there were a substantially larger number of changes, which do NOT appear in Boy Scout Requirements 2006 (33215B). Since the new Merit Badge pamphlet is also available, Scouts should also be allowed to use the requirements below, which are those in the pamphlet, and which seem to be more up to date.

The following is a list of what has changed in the merit badge pamphlet:

Requirements 1c, 1d, 1f, 1g, 1h, and 1i were revised. 
In requirement 2, Option A, the title was changed slightly, items b and c were merged, items d-l were renumbered as c-k, changes were made to items e, f, i, and k, and changes were made to the shooting skills rules
In requirement 2, Option B, changes were made to items d, g, h, j, k, l, and n, and changes were made to the shooting skills rules

There also appear to be two editorial errors in the text as it appears in the pamphlet. What we believe to be the correct text is listed below.

The requirements in the pamphlet read as follows:

  1. Do the following:
    1. Explain why BB and pellet air guns must always be treated with the same respect as firearms.
    2. Describe how you would react if a friend visiting your home asked to see your or your family's firearm(s).
    3. Explain the need for and use and types of eye and hearing protection.
    4. Explain the main points of the laws for owning and using guns in your community and state.
    5. Explain how hunting is related to the wise use of renewable wildlife resources.
    6. Successfully complete a state hunter education course, or obtain a copy of the hunting laws for your state, then do the following:
      1. Explain the main points of hunting laws in your state and give any special laws on the use of guns or ammunition, and
      2. List the kinds of wildlife that can be legally hunted in your state.
    7. Explain to your counselor the proper hygiene guidelines used in shooting.
    8. Identify and explain three shotgun sports. Identify places in your community where you could shoot these sports and explain how you can join or be a part of shooting sports activities.
    9. Give your counselor a list of sources that you could contact for information on firearms and their use.
  2. Do ONE of the following options:

    OPTION A --- SHOTGUN SHOOTING (Modern Shotshell Type)

    1. Identify the principal parts of a shotgun, action types, and how they function.
    2. Identify and demonstrate the rules for safely handling a shotgun.
      Demonstrate how to handle shotguns in a safe manner.
    3. Identify the parts of a shotgun shell and their functions.
    4. Identify the various gauges of shotguns. Explain which one you would use and why.
    5. Identify and demonstrate the fundamentals of safely shooting a shotgun. Explain what a misfire, hangfire, and squib fire are, and explain the procedures to follow in response to each.
    6. Identify and explain each rule for safely shooting a shotgun.
    7. Demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitude necessary to safely shoot moving targets, using the fundamentals of shotgun shooting.
    8. Identify the materials needed to clean a shotgun.
    9. Demonstrate how to clean a shotgun properly and safely.
    10. Discuss what points you would consider in selecting a shotgun.
    11. Shooting score required. - Hit at least 12 out of 25 targets (48 percent) in two 25-target groups. The two groups need not be shot in consecutive order.

    Shooting skill rules:

    • Targets may be thrown by a hand trap, manual mechanical trap, or on any trap or skeet field. Note: If using a hand trap or manual mechanical trap, the trap operator should be at least 5 feet to the right and 3 feet to the rear of the shooter. If throwing left-handed with a hand trap the trap operator should be at least 5 feet to the left and 3 feet to the rear of the shooter.
    • All targets should be thrown at a reasonable speed and in the same direction.
    • Targets should be generally thrown so as to climb in the air after leaving the trap.
    • Scores may be fired at any time, either in formal competition or in practice.
    • Any gauge shotgun not exceeding 12 gauge may be used.
    • Standard clay targets customarily used for trap and skeet are to be used.
      (This rule, does not appear in the merit badge pamphlet. We believe it was omitted in error)
    • Any ammunition, either factory or hand loaded, may be used.
    • Shooters must shoot in rounds of 25. Rounds need not be shot continuously or on the same day (the term "round" refers to a single series of 25 shots).
    • If using a trap field, shoot station 3 with traps set to throw straightaway targets.
    • If using a skeet field, shoot station 7 low house.

    OPTION B --- MUZZLE-LOADING SHOTGUN SHOOTING

    1. Discuss a brief history of the development of the muzzle-loading shotgun.
    2. Identify principal parts of percussion and flintlock shotguns and discuss how they function.
    3. Demonstrate and discuss the safe handling rules of a muzzle-loading shotgun.
    4. Identify the various grades of black powder and their proper and safe use.
    5. Discuss proper safety procedures pertaining to black powder use and storage.
    6. Discuss proper components of a load.
    7. Identify proper procedures and accessories used for safely loading a muzzle-loading shotgun.
    8. Demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitude necessary to safely shoot a muzzle-loading shotgun on a range, including range procedures. Explain what a misfire, hangfire, and squib fire are, and explain the procedures to follow in response to each.
    9. Shoot a moving target with a muzzle-loading shotgun using the five fundamentals of firing the shot.
    10. Identify the materials needed to clean a muzzle-loading shotgun properly and safely.
    11. Demonstrate how to clean to clear a muzzle-loading shotgun's failure to fire and explain or demonstrate proper correction procedures.
      We believe that the merit badge pamphlet has an editorial error here and the text for this requirement should read as follows:
      Demonstrate how to clean a muzzle-loading shotgun properly and safely.
    12. Identify the causes of a muzzle-loading shotgun's failure to fire and explain or demonstrate proper preventative procedures.
    13. Discuss what points you would consider in selecting a muzzle-loading shotgun.
    14. Shooting score required. -- Hit at least 5 out of 15 targets in two 15-target groups. The two groups need not be shot in consecutive order.

    Shooting skill rules:

    • Targets may be thrown by a hand trap, manual mechanical trap, or on any trap or skeet field. Note: if using a hand trap or manual mechanical trap, the trap operator should be at least 5 feet to the right and 3 feet to the rear of the shooter. If throwing left-handed with a hand trap the trap operator should be at least 5 feet to the left and 3 feet to the rear of the shooter.
    • All targets should be thrown at a reasonable speed and in the same direction.
    • Targets should be generally thrown so as to climb in the air after leaving trap.
    • Scores may be fired at any time, either in formal competition or in practice.
    • Any gauge shotgun not exceeding 10 gauge may be used.
    • Standard clay targets customarily used for trap and skeet are to be used.
    • On a standard trap field, the shooter should be positioned 8 yards behind the trap house.  The trap should be set to throw only straightaway targets.
    • If using a skeet field, shoot station 7 low house.

Skating

In Requirement 2, in the Ice Skating option, the wording of items a(1), b(3), c(1), and c(2) were revised slightly, item a(4) was deleted and old item a(5) renumbered as a(4).  The changes are as follows:

  1. Do the following:

    1. Give general safety and courtesy etiquette rules for ice skating. Discuss preparations that must be taken when skating outdoors on natural ice. Explain how to make an ice rescue.

    2. Describe daily skate care when skates are in use.
      5.
      Describe how to store skates for long periods of time, such as seasonal storage.

  2. Do the following:

    1. Starting from a T position, stroke forward around the test area, avoiding the use of toe picks points if wearing figure skates,

  3. Do the following:

    1. Glide backward on two feet for at least two times the skater's height. 25 feet .

    2. Skate backward for at least 20 40 feet on two skates.


Truck Transportation

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. List the major truck lines serving your town.
  2. Do the following:
    1. Describe the role of truck transportation within commerce (the movement of goods, funds, and information).
    2. Describe how trucks fit into a company's supply chain. This could be a manufacturer, importer, wholesaler, or retailer.
    3. On paper, map out how goods that are manufactured overseas are transported to a retailer in this country.
  3. Describe the difference between the gasoline engine and the diesel engine that power trucks. List the advantages of each.
  4. Visit a truck terminal and complete items 4a through 4e. After your visit, share what you have learned with your counselor.
    1. Find out what kind of maintenance program the company follows to help keep its fleet, drivers, and the roadway safe.
    2. Find out how dispatchers maintain communication with drivers on the road.
    3. Talk with a professional truck driver about safety. Learn about the truck driver's rules of the road for safe driving. List five safe-driving rules every professional truck driver must follow.
    4. Review the driver's log and find out what kind of information the log contains.
    5. Learn about important federal regulations that help ensure public safety.
  5. Do the following:
    1. Outline the general organization of a trucking company. Describe what each department does.
    2. List five positions with trucking companies and describe each one.
  6. Name five government agencies that work closely with the trucking industry. Describe their role.
  7. List five different kinds of trucks. Tell the service each provides.
  8. Assume that you are going to ship by truck 500 pounds of goods (freight class 65) from your town to another town 500 miles away. Your shipment must arrive within three days. Explain in writing:
    1. How to prepare the shipment
    2. How to compare at least three carriers for time in transit and rates
    3. How to choose which carrier to use
    4. How to insure the shipment for damages
  9. Define the following terms: bill of lading, ETA, logbook, intermodal, containers, tariff, shippers, carrier, consignee, drayage, cartage.
  10. Learn about opportunities in the field of truck transportation. Choose one career in which you are interested and discuss with your counselor the major responsibilities of that position and the qualifications, education, and training such a position requires.

Veterinary Medicine

The requirements were completely rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Discuss with your counselor the roles a veterinarian plays in the following:
    1. Companion or small animal medicine, and equine medicine
    2. Food animal or large animal medicine
    3. Exotic animal medicine
    4. Marine animal medicine (mammal and fish)
    5. Poultry medicine
    6. Wildlife medicine and aquaculture medicine
  2. Discuss with your counselor the roles a veterinarian plays in the following:
    1. Public health medicine and zoonotic disease surveillance and control
    2. The military
    3. Food safety and inspection
    4. Laboratory animal medicine and research
    5. Teaching and government
  3. Describe the training required to become a veterinarian. Where is the veterinary medical college nearest you? Describe the prerequisites for applying to veterinary school.
  4. Tell your counselor what a registered veterinary technician (R.T.V.) or animal health technician (A.H.T.) is. Describe the training required to become an R.V.T. or A.H.T. Where is the school or facility for R.V.T. or A.H.T training nearest you? Describe the role an R.V.T. or A.H.T. would play in assisting a veterinarian working in three of the practice types listed in requirement 1.
  5. Discuss with your merit badge counselor the role a veterinarian plays in the human-animal bond.
  6. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Visit a veterinary clinic, hospital, or veterinary referral teaching hospital that does work in one of the practices listed in requirement 1. Spend as much time as you can observing the veterinarians and their staff. Write a report on what you observed and learned at the facility. Share your report with your counselor.
    2. Spend as much time as possible with a veterinarian who works in one of the fields listed in requirement 2. Learn what special training beyond veterinary medical school may have been required for that position. Learn about any special or unusual activities required of this position. Write a report on what you have learned about this field of veterinary medicine. Include in your report how this field serves the needs of the general public. Share your report with your counselor.

Whitewater

The requirements have been substantially rewritten, and now read as follows:

  1. Do the following:
    1. Review with your counselor the first aid for injuries or illnesses that could occur while working on the Whitewater merit badge, including hypothermia, heat reactions, dehydration, insect stings, blisters, bruises, cuts, and shoulder dislocation.
    2. Identify the conditions that must exist before performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a person. Explain how such conditions are recognized.
    3. Demonstrate proper technique for performing CPR using a training device approved by your counselor.
  2. Do the following:
    1. Review and compare BSA Safety Afloat and the American Whitewater safety guidelines and demonstrate your understanding of these principles by answering questions from your counselor.
    2. Identify and explain the use and importance of safety equipment on moving water. Include in your explanation a discussion about throw ropes, whistles, and how to choose and properly fit PFDs (personal flotation devices) and helmets.
  3. Before doing requirements 4 through 13 earn the Canoeing merit badge if you will be using a canoe to earn this merit badge. If you will be using a kayak, earn the Kayaking BSA Award.
  4. Do ONE of the following:
    1. If you are completing these requirements as a tandem canoeist, demonstrate basic canoe-handling skills by completing the Scout gate test within 160 seconds while paddling tandem with a buddy. Then demonstrate the following strokes: cross forward, cross draw, bow pry, Duffek, high brace, and low brace,
    2. If you are completing these requirements as a solo canoeist, demonstrate basic solo canoe-handling skills by completing the Scout gate test within 160 seconds. Then demonstrate the following strokes: cross forward, cross draw, stern pry, Duffek, high brace, and low brace.
    3. If you are using a kayak to complete these requirements, demonstrate basic kayak-handling skills by completing the Scout gate test within 160 seconds. Demonstrate the following strokes: Duffek, high brace, low brace, and sculling draw. Then do the following:
      1. Move the kayak forward in a reasonably straight line for 10 yards.
      2. Move the kayak sideways to the right and to the left.
      3. Pivot 360 degrees to the right and left.
      4. Stop the kayak.
  5. Do the following:
    1. Explain the importance of scouting before committing to running a rapid, and discuss good judgment when evaluating a stretch of river or a particular rapid.
    2. Explain the terms downstream V, riffle, strainer, eddy, eddy line, pillow, ledge, bend, shallows, falls, low-head dam, current, rock, drop, horizon line, wave, standing wave, hydraulic, and sleeper.
    3. Explain how to scout and read a river while ashore and while afloat, and discuss the importance of hazard recognition.
    4. Demonstrate your ability to read the river where you are practicing and demonstrating your whitewater skills.
  6. Explain the International Scale of River Difficulty and apply the scale to the stretch of river where you are practicing and demonstrating your whitewater skills. Identify the specific characteristics of the river that are factors in your classification according to the International Scale.
  7. Explain the importance of communication during every whitewater outing. Explain and then demonstrate using the following river signals: "Run right," "Run left," "Run down the center," "Stop," "Are you OK?" and "Help!"
  8. Do the following:
    1. Explain the differences between flatwater and whitewater canoes; identify the advantages and special uses for kayaks and decked canoes in running water. Identify the different materials used in modern whitewater canoe construction and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
    2. Describe the various types of kayaks and how they differ in design, materials, and purpose.
    3. Identify the advantages and special uses for kayaks and decked canoes in moving water.
    4. Discuss the construction, safety, and functional features of paddles used in whitewater activities.
  9. Discuss the personal and group equipment necessary for a safe whitewater outing and how and why it is used. Explain how to pack and protect these items.
  10. Wearing the proper personal flotation device (PFD) and being appropriately dressed for the weather and water conditions, perform the following skills in moving water in a properly equipped whitewater craft of your choice (tandem canoe, solo canoe, or solo kayak). If a tandem canoe is used, the skills must be demonstrated from both the bow and stern positions.
    1. Launch and land.
    2. Paddle forward in a straight line.
    3. Backpaddle.
    4. Sideslip, both sides.
    5. Ferry upstream and downstream.
    6. Eddy turn.
    7. Peel out.
  11. Explain and demonstrate:
    1. Self-rescue and procedures when capsized in moving water, including a wet exit if necessary
    2. Safe rescue of others in various whitewater situations situations using a throw rope.
    3. Portaging - when and how to do it.
    4. The whitewater buddy system using at least three persons and three craft.
  12. Discuss the use of inflatable boats on moving water. Discuss the use of inflatable rafts on moving water. In your discussion, explain the special safety precautions that should be taken when using an inflatable raft and the risks of "tubing" on moving water.
  13. Participate in a whitewater trip using either a canoe or kayak on a Class I or Class II river. Help to prepare a written plan specifying the route, schedule, equipment, safety precautions, and emergency procedures. Determine local rules and obtain permission from landowners and land managers in advance. Explain what steps you have taken to comply with BSA Safety Afloat and the American Whitewater safety guidelines. Execute the plan with others

This analysis was prepared as a service to Scouts and Scouters nationwide
Paul S. Wolf
Advancement Webmaster
US Scouting Service Project, Inc.

Printed copies of this document may be freely distributed for use in the Scouting program, so long as the source is acknowledged, but copying the information to another web site is NOT authorized.


Page updated on: January 16, 2014



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