REQUIREMENTS were REVISED as of January 1, 2001.
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  1. Name four breeds of livestock in each of the following classifications: horses, dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, hogs. Tell their principal uses and merits. Tell where the breeds originated.
  2. List the principal diseases in your area that afflict the animals in each classification. Describe the symptoms and explain the proper treatment for the diseases you list.
  3. Explain the major differences in digestive systems of ruminant and nonruminant animals.
    Explain the differences in feeds typically used for beef cattle and for dairy cows.
  4. Tell how you would properly manage a cow, sheep, horse, sheep, goat, or hog, or a poultry flock, including adequate feeding. Tell what must be done to prevent illness, blemishes, defects, and disease arising from improper and unsanitary conditions.
  5. Tell about three career opportunities in livestock production or animal science.
  6. Complete ONE of the following options:


    1. Visit a farm or ranch where beef cattle are produced under any of these systems:
      1. feeding market cattle for slaughter;
      2. producing feeder cattle for sale to commercial cattle feeders;
      3. producing purebred cattle for sale as breeding stock to other breeders.

      Talk with the operator. Tell how the cattle were handled, fed, weighed, and shipped.

    2. Sketch a plan of a feedlot, hay forage and grain storage facilities, and loading chute for 30 or more fattening steers, or a corral plan with cutting and loading chutes for handling 50 or more beef cows and their calves at one time.
    3. Submit a sketch showing the principal wholesale and retail cuts of beef. Tell about the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) USDA dual grading system of beef. Tell about the grades in each system.
    4. Define the following terms: bull, steer, bullock, cow, heifer, freemartin, heiferette, calf.


    1. Tell how a cow or goat converts forage and grain into milk.
    2. Make a chart showing the ingredients in cow's milk or goat's milk. Chart the amount of each ingredient.
    3. Tell the difference between certified and pasteurized Explain the requirements for producing Grade A milk. Tell how milk is pasteurized.
    4. Tell about the kinds of equipment and sanitation health standards for dairy farms.
    5. Define the following terms: bull, cow, steer, heifer, springer, buck, doe, kid.
    6. e. Visit a dairy farm or milk processing plant. Tell about your visit.


    1. Make a sketch of a useful saddle horse barn and exercise yard.
    2. Tell the history of the horse and the benefits it has brought to people man.
    3. Tell about the following terms:
      quarter horse,
      draft horse,
      colt, and
    4. Visit a horse farm. Describe your visit.
    5. Outline the proper feeding of a horse doing light work. Explain why the amount and kind of feed will change according to the kind of horse and the work it does. Describe the symptoms of colic.


    1. Make a sketch of a live lamb. Show the location of the various wholesale and retail cuts.
    2. Make an exhibit and explain four blood grades (American) of wool. Tell how wool is processed from shearing to the finished product.
      Select two breeds that would be appropriate for the production of crossbred market lambs in your region. Identify which breed the rams should be.
    3. Choose three breeds and offer a crossbreeding plan that would use the best characteristics of each breed for maximum sheep production efficiency.
    4. c. Visit a farm or ranch where sheep are raised. Tell about your visit, including the feeding program used. If you cannot visit a sheep farm or ranch, view a video from a breed association, or research the Internet for information on sheep production. Tell about your findings.
    5. d. Describe some differences between the production of native and range pure-bred and commercial lambs.
    6. Define the following terms: wether, ewe, ram, lamb.


    1. Visit a farm where hogs are produced hog production is a major project, or visit a packing plant or stockyard handling hogs. Describe your visit. If you cannot visit a hog production unit or packing plant, view a video from a packer or processor. Tell about the video.
    2. Outline in writing the proper feeding from the breeding or gilt or sow through the weaning of the litter. Discuss the growth and finishing periods.
    3. Make a sketch showing the principal wholesale and retail cuts of pork. Tell about the recommended USDA grades of pork. Tell the basis for each grade.
    4. Define the following terms: gilt, sow, barrow, boar.


    1. Keep management records on a brood of 20 chicks (sexed or straight run) for five months. Record feed consumption, medication, mortality, and vaccination. Present the records for review.
    2. b. Do ONE of the following:
      1. Manage an egg-production flock for five months. Keep records of feed purchased, eggs sold, medication, vaccination, and mortality. Present records for review. Tell about the grading of eggs.
      2. Raise 20 chicks, poults, or ducklings. Keep records of feed intake, and weight gains, medication, vaccination, and mortality. Present records for review. Kill and dress two birds. Tell about the grades of poultry.
      3. Visit a commercial layer or broiler chicken producer, or a turkey production unit. Tell about your visit. If you cannot visit a commercial poultry or egg farm, view a video from a poultry association or research the Internet for information on poultry production. Tell about your findings.
    3. Make a sketch of a layer house or broiler house showing nests, roosts, feeders, waterers, and means of ventilation. Explain how insulation, ventilation, temperature controls, automatic lights, and other environmental controls are used to protect birds from heat, cold, and bad weather.
    4. Tell about the grading of eggs. Tell how broilers (fryers) are graded. Describe the classes of chicken meat.
    5. Define the following terms: hen, rooster, chick, capon, tom, poult.

BSA Advancement ID#: 18
Pamphlet Revision Date: 2000
Requirements last updated in 2001

Page updated on: November 28, 2017

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